Understanding the Path of Hurricane Destruction: 2017 Hurricane Season Recap

By Lisa Graichen, Climate Adaptation Program Coordinator, University of New Hampshire Cooperative Extension and New Hampshire  Sea Grant

Editors’ Note: This story is the fourth contribution to the TCS Storm Stories series.

The 2017 hurricane season was the most expensive in US history, with an estimated $265 billion in damages from 17 named storms, easily surpassing the previous record (2005) of $159 billion, which saw 28 named storms including Hurricane Katrina. Adding the West’s wildfires brings the 2017 damages total from large-scale hazard events to over $300 billion [1].

While recovery efforts from last year’s extreme events are still underway, we also need to think ahead toward preparing for the 2018 hurricane season while we have the chance. Between climate change and ever-growing coastal populations, we can’t afford not to learn from these recent extreme events. This past hurricane season offers lessons in the importance of using social media, integrating social science, and addressing equity issues in our preparedness work.

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Figure 1. Data from: http://www.noaa.gov/media-release/extremely-active-2017-atlantic-hurricane-season-finally-ends, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2018/01/08/hurricanes-wildfires-made-2017-the-most-costly-u-s-disaster-year-on-record/?utm_term=.17ca49914b60, https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/billions/

How is climate change affecting extreme weather?

While there are many factors that contribute to extreme weather, the following points are clear:

  • Warmer oceans provide more energy for storms, so we expect more intense storm events.
  • There is more uncertainty about the effect of climate change on hurricane frequency. The overall number of hurricanes may drop, but the proportion of stronger hurricanes may increase.
  • Regardless of changes in hurricane strength and frequency, storm surges will be higher due to higher sea levels.
  • Warmer air holds more moisture, leading to more intense rainfall. “Hurricane rainfall is projected to rise 7% for each degree Celsius rise in tropical sea surface temperatures” [2].
  • Higher ocean temperatures may also contribute to larger and longer lasting storms.
  • The range of hurricanes may expand as ocean temperatures rise, leading to storms in places that haven’t experienced them before (e.g., Ophelia, which hit Ireland and the U.K. this past fall).
Figure 2. Hurricane Ophelia in Cornwall (Getty Images)
Figure 2. Hurricane Ophelia in Cornwall (Getty Images)

 

Time series data from the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information clearly suggest that the number of billion-dollar disaster events is growing over time. Extreme weather is becoming our ‘new normal’, and we will need to embrace ‘expecting the unexpected’ as our modus operandi.

 

Figure 3. Time Series of U.S. Billion-Dollar Weather and Climate Disasters (NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, 2018). https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/billions
Figure 3. Time Series of U.S. Billion-Dollar Weather and Climate Disasters (NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, 2018). https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/billions

What can we learn from the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season?

The importance of social media. This is evidenced by headlines like, “‘Please Send Help.’ Hurricane Harvey Victims Turn to Twitter and Facebook” (Time Magazine), “Hurricane Harvey: 5 Ways Social Media Saved Lives in Texas” (San Diego Union-Tribune), “Social Media Plays Growing Role in Guard’s Hurricane Response” (Military.com), and others (see graphic).

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The 2017 storms showed the power of social media in providing real-time information, requesting help, documenting impacts, and checking on friends and family members.

George Washington University media professor Nikki Usher reflected in an opinion piece for the San Diego Union-Tribune, “We’ve seen disasters through Facebook where you can mark yourself safe and there have been movements toward giving people a chance to check in—but this is one of the first real disasters where you see rescuing via social media, you see images that the media couldn’t possibly get” [3].

While there were many positive stories about social media posts leading to rescues and other benefits, there are caveats – some reported hoaxes like insurance scams or the risk of identity theft due to sharing personal information. In addition, calling 911 remains the standard rescue request approach, so those who tweeted help requests instead may not have received assistance.

The main social media lesson here is that all of us operating in the coastal management/emergency response sphere need to engage in using social media during storm response, but we need to also identify best practices as we enter this relatively new territory.

The importance of social science. “Why don’t people evacuate?” was a question that came up over and over again on media coverage of the storms.

I think one role coastal managers can play is to help raise awareness about common reasons people choose not to evacuate and help communities address those barriers in the future. For example, some may be physically unable to leave their homes due to a disability, others don’t want to leave their pets behind, and some are afraid that their homes might be looted if they leave. Others may recall experiences from a previous storm event and are confident that they can ride out the next one.

Generally, those with limited financial resources can’t leave as easily, and some describe feeling a responsibility to stay and look out for their neighbors. In addition, many people’s evacuation decisions are influenced by whether evacuation orders made by local or state governments are voluntary or mandatory. These are legitimate factors in people’s decision-making, and we need to make sure our emergency preparedness and response communications help address these barriers (and work to improve the dialogue around this in the media where we have opportunities to do so) [4].

An example of audience segmentation related to hurricane response comes from coastal Connecticut (see graphic below). A 2014 survey of Connecticut residents in Coastal Evacuation Zones A and B found there to be five hurricane audience segments: “First Out” residents (21%) are anxious and eager to leave if a hurricane is in the forecast. “Constrained” residents (14%) are aware of risks and willing to evacuate but face barriers to doing so. “Optimists” (16%) doubt a hurricane will occur, but these coastal residents are willing to evacuate if one does occur. Twenty-seven percent are “Reluctant” to evacuate but will leave if ordered to. Lastly, the “Diehards” (22%) are confident they can safely ride out hurricanes at home [5]. Effective communication about preparedness will likely look different for each of these audiences.

fig6There is a growing body of social science research and risk communication best practices available that many of us our familiar with, but we could work more with media outlets to incorporate these principles before, during, and after storm events.

Bringing equity issues to the forefront. There are a lot of layers here, and no easy answers.

While extreme weather events don’t discriminate in whom they impact, low-income individuals, disabled individuals, and communities of color tend to be disproportionately affected [6]. For example, those who are already economically vulnerable have fewer resources to invest in flood insurance and are less able to sustain loss of income from disrupted employment during storms.

As described above, physical and economic vulnerabilities play a big role in preparedness and decisions to evacuate. University of North Carolina at Greensboro Professor of Sociology Steve Kroll-Smith provides some insight: “A disaster creates a clean slate for communities – a moment when things could be otherwise. However, what ends up happening is that we rebuild the inequality that existed prior to the recovery… In a society like ours, disaster relief processes are inevitably administered via market principles, including the potent notion of whether or not an applicant for relief is determined to be ‘market worthy.’ A market society is, by its very nature, going to recreate the inequalities that existed prior to the disaster” [7].

In 2017, there was a noticeable disparity in media coverage of the storm impacts on different places, and a lot of dialogue about the disparity in federal response to different places. While there are challenges in directly comparing the storms’ impacts and responses, it was hard not to notice some differences.

FiveThirtyEight analyzed media coverage for Hurricane Maria and Puerto Rico and compared coverage for Hurricane Harvey in Texas and Hurricane Irma in Florida, finding that Hurricane Maria and Puerto Rico got comparatively little online and cable TV coverage [8].

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The United States Virgin Islands and other islands in the Caribbean were devastated by hurricanes as well, but they received even less media coverage and federal response than Puerto Rico. [9].

All of the storms seem to have faded into history, but people are still recovering and still need support. As of December 29th (about three months after hurricane Maria), half of Puerto Ricans were still without power [10]. It also became apparent that “nearly half of Americans don’t know Puerto Ricans are fellow citizens” which speaks to some even larger awareness and understanding issues [11]. There is certainly a lot of room for improvement in how we keep the dialogue going and keep the support coming long after the immediate aftermath and to all affected places and communities.

Seizing the educational opportunity. The 2017 hurricane season sparked a fair amount of dialogue about the “500-year-storm” and “100-year-floodplain” terminology. Here are just a few examples:

  • “Houston is experiencing its third ‘500-year’ flood in 3 years. How is that possible?” (Washington Post)
  • “’500-year’ rain events are happening more often than you think” (CBS News)
  • “A ‘500-Year Flood’ Could Happen Again Sooner Than You Think. Here’s Why.” (New York Times)
  • “Hurricane season ends and FEMA 100-year floodplain to be expanded” (KHOU)
  • “Builders Said Their Homes Were Out of a Flood Zone. Then Harvey Hit.” (New York Times)
  • “It’s Time to Ditch the Concept of ‘100-Year Floods’” (FiveThirtyEight)
  • “Hurricane Harvey shows how floods don’t pay attention to flood zone maps – or politicians” (Washington Post)

While the top priorities after storm events are of course safety and recovery, there are significant educational opportunities related to climate change during these times. Some argue it is insensitive to discuss climate change soon after hurricane events, but I think it would be irresponsible not to have climate change be a central part of recovery and rebuilding efforts. We need to ensure that decisions made now incorporate science, take into account likely future conditions, and work to tackle equity-related issues.


With about six months left until the next hurricane season begins, we certainly have a lot of lessons to digest from the 2017 season and a lot of preparedness work to do. What other lessons did you take from the 2017 storms? How are you preparing for 2018? Please write your thoughts in the comments box below.

 

 

 

 


References:

[1] Mooney, C., and Dennis, B. (2018, January 8). Extreme hurricanes and wildfires made 2017 the most costly U.S. disaster year on record. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2018/01/08/hurricanes-wildfires-made-2017-the-most-costly-u-s-disaster-year-on-record/?utm_term=.3b3a9a582079.

[2] Sneed, A. (2017, October 26). Was the Extreme 2017 Hurricane Season Driven by Climate Change? Scientific American. Retrieved from: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/was-the-extreme-2017-hurricane-season-driven-by-climate-change/

[3] http://time.com/4921961/hurricane-harvey-twitter-facebook-social-media/

[4] Resnick, B. (2017, September 10). Why some people never evacuate during a hurricane, according to a psychologist. Vox. Retrieved from https://www.vox.com/science-and-health/2017/8/25/16202296/hurricane-irma-2017-evacuation-psychology and Graham, D.A. (2017, August 25). Why Do Some People Decide to Ride Out Hurricanes? The Atlantic.Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2017/08/hurricane-harvey-taxes-evacuate-ride-out/538068/

[5] Marlon, J., Leiserowitz, A., Feinberg, G., and Rosenthal, S. (2015, June 29). Hurricane Attitudes of Coastal Connecticut Residents: A Segmentation Analysis to Support Communication. Yale Program on Climate Communication. Retrieved from http://climatecommunication.yale.edu/publications/coastal-ct-hurricane-segments/

[6] Davies, D.M. (2017, December 8). Texas Matters: Issues of Equity after Hurricane Harvey. Texas Public Radio. Retrieved from http://tpr.org/post/texas-matters-issues-equity-after-hurricane-harvey.

[7] Bedrosian, A. (2017, November 16). Sociology Professor Explores Impact of Disasters on Identity, Inequality. University of North Carolina at Greensboro. Retrieved from https://newsandfeatures.uncg.edu/professor-explores-disasters-identity-inequality/

[8] Mehta, D. (2017, September 28). The Media Really Has Neglected Puerto Rico. FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved from https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/the-media-really-has-neglected-puerto-rico/

[9] Belluz, J. (2017, October 3). It’s not just Puerto Rico: 6 other Caribbean island nations are in crisis after the hurricanes. Vox. Retrieved from https://www.vox.com/science-and-health/2017/9/26/16367410/hurricane-maria-2017-puerto-rico-caribbean-barbuda-dominica-virgin-islands-cuba-st-martin

[10] Robles, F. and Bidgood, J. (2017, December 29). Three Months After Maria, Roughly Half of Puerto Ricans Still Without Power. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/12/29/us/puerto-rico-power-outage.html

[11] Dropp, K., and Nyhan, B. (2017, September 26). Nearly Half of Americans Don’t Know Puerto Ricans Are Fellow Citizens. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/26/upshot/nearly-half-of-americans-dont-know-people-in-puerto-ricoans-are-fellow-citizens.html?mtrref=www.google.com

HAVE YOU MET THESE COASTAL CHAMPIONS?

By Kasey R. Jacobs, TCS Communications Chair

With the same enthusiasm as a mantis shrimp going for a human’s finger, a large group of TCS members click on the Renew Your Membership icon as soon as they get the reminder email in December.

I caught up with the first members to renew for 2018.

These eight coastal champions shared their reasons for renewing, what their hopes are for TCS and their careers in 2018, and, most importantly, what they hope for our coastlines in 2018.

TCS spans disciplines and crosses boundaries like no other professional association. This is what Louisiana Sea Grant Scholar Don Davis told me. The mix of disciplines represented within TCS is evidenced by the first eight members to renew for 2018.

Don W. Davis, Louisiana Sea Grant Scholar
Don W. Davis, Louisiana Sea Grant Scholar

Because there are many policymakers who are TCS members, Don believes the translator-like interpretation needed between scientists and policymakers is eased. Policymakers in TCS help bring scientists successfully into the policy realm and scientists help policymakers navigate coastal jargon and options.

Many TCS members wear multiple hats of scientist and policymaker and everything in between, above, and beneath…

Or teach multiple disciplines, like Lawrence B. Cahoon, 2017 Distinguished Teaching Professor in Biology and Marine Biology for University of North Carolina Wilmington.

Lawrence B. Cahoon, 2017 Distinguished Teaching Professor in Biology and Marine Biology for University of North Carolina Wilmington
Lawrence B. Cahoon, 2017 Distinguished Teaching Professor in Biology and Marine Biology for University of North Carolina Wilmington

Larry hopes that in 2018 the public awareness of coastal management issues (resource and energy development, coastal storm mitigation, sea level rise, and economic transitions) “continues to rise and finds expression in wise policy decisions”. His own goal for this year is to continue to make useful contributions to the science underpinning policy decisions.

Coastal advocates in TCS might agree with Pete Stauffer, Environmental Director for the Surfrider Foundation, in his hopes that “we can empower coastal communities and the public to have a stronger voice in the management decisions that affect our coastlines.”

Pete Stauffer, Environmental Director, Surfrider Foundation
Pete Stauffer, Environmental Director, Surfrider Foundation

Pete stressed, “It’s never been more important for coastal professionals to network and support each other.”

When Pete told me that TCS has played an important role in his development as a coastal advocate, I was greatly encouraged. I am a former grassroots advocate who misses mobilizing communities. It makes me feel secure that I have TCS to help make transitions to different areas of coastal management if I desire.

Pushing the envelope are coastal scientists conducting applied research. They can help decision makers adopt protocols and standards that bring in the future. Stephen Dickson, a marine geologist at the Maine Geological Survey, has played a pivotal role in forward thinking hazard mitigation strategies.

Stephen Dickson, a marine geologist at the Maine Geological Survey
Stephen Dickson, a marine geologist at the Maine Geological Survey

His recent work includes mitigating coastal bluff erosion with nature-based approaches that mimic and maintain coastal ecosystems as sea level rises.

Steve told me that 2017 was “a banner year for geohazards and coastal disasters with extreme costs around the world.  Lives were lost, structures demolished, and coastal ecosystems destroyed.”

Steve would like to see TCS members collectively continue to advocate and teach ways for sustainable coastal development and post-storm recovery with integrated science, economics, and public policy.

But the top eight members to renew are not just domestically-focused.

Kem Lowry, Emeritus Professor of Urban and Regional Planning with the University of Hawaii
Kem Lowry, Emeritus Professor of Urban and Regional Planning with the University of Hawaii

Kem Lowry, Emeritus Professor of Urban and Regional Planning with the University of Hawaii, has had the good fortune to be involved in coastal planning and research activities in Sri Lanka, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines for about forty years. His primary focus now is climate change adaptation. The last three years Kem has worked with colleagues throughout the Asia-Pacific region delivering week-long training courses on urban climate change adaptation.

In the U.S. Kem is developing a coastal retreat strategy for Hawaii with a team. He told me that in these and other areas of work he has been informed and inspired by the work of colleagues in TCS.

Another climate adaptation specialist in the top eight is Lisa Graichen, Climate Adaptation Program Coordinator for UNH Cooperative Extension and New Hampshire Sea Grant. 

Lisa Graichen, Climate Adaptation Program Coordinator for UNH Cooperative Extension and New Hampshire Sea Grant
Lisa Graichen, Climate Adaptation Program Coordinator for UNH Cooperative Extension and New Hampshire Sea Grant

When asked why she eagerly renewed she said, “TCS has given me the opportunity to connect with coastal management professionals around the country and hone my communications skills by participating in the Communications Subcommittee”.

Personally, I have been very impressed by Lisa’s well-researched articles and interviews. Her writing is engaging for non-scientists and read and shared widely by members and non-members alike. Lisa has astutely used her volunteer time with TCS to strategically grow professionally and she is a great model for all our members hoping to do the same.

Lisa is hoping 2018 will be a year that “we can learn from last year’s incredibly impactful hurricane season and make progress in our preparedness and response”. She thinks “we can elevate the climate conversation so that rebuilding decisions are smart, forward-thinking, and equitable.”

Tom Bigford, Past TCS President and retired from NOAA and the American Fisheries Society.
Tom Bigford, Past TCS President and retired from NOAA and the American Fisheries Society.

With his eye always on the professional development of TCS members, Tom Bigford, Past TCS President and retired from NOAA and the American Fisheries Society, hopes TCS can increase member participation in 2018 so our society can continue and even expand efforts to mentor the next generation of coastal professionals.

Writing earnestly, Tom revealed, “TCS provided just that type of assistance when I transitioned from grad school to professional life. I started in the natural sciences (I was a crab ecologist!) so TCS offered the extension I needed as I sought a more interdisciplinary career. TCS is the sole reason I had a very rewarding 43-year career. Now in retirement I plan to remain involved any way I can.”

Ellen Gordon, a freelance writer and editor (mostly retired), has been a TCS member since her graduate school days when she found the Society a great help “meeting all sorts of folks already in coastal careers”.

Ellen Gordon, a freelance writer and editor (mostly retired).
Ellen Gordon, a freelance writer and editor (mostly retired).

She promptly renewed her TCS membership because she values the connections made, and wants to help support the Society’s continued work fostering dialogue and communications in the coastal area. Ellen was the last editor of the TCS Bulletin (now the TCS Blog) and is excited by the advances in social media TCS has made. “Really love those Twitter posts!”, she exclaimed.

A treasure trove of knowledge and experience is available to all TCS members—Charter members who created TCS in the 1970s. Don Davis stressed this to me in that he has found we learn through reading, experience (including in laboratories), and talking to people. The talking to people being most critical.

While Don believes that our job listings “in itself is worth the price of being a member,” the biggest value TCS brings is being a bridge for those seasoned coastal professionals and those starting out.

In talking to Don, a geologist and cultural geographer, I could find he has a big heart for the people his work serves. Coastal peoples. Professionals and coastal communities. I could tell his desire for better connections among coastal peoples is a decades long desire.

Don has close ties with Acadians, a U.S. cultural group that is perhaps the last generation not to live more than 30 miles from home. Don implores us to include the cultures of coastal peoples in addressing planned retreat. “Resiliency is tattooed to their soul.”

Don wraps up the sentiments of the eight members to renew for 2018 best: “TCS weaves the tapestry of all these things together. I don’t know your age or background. Do I like TCS? Yes ma’am! I do.”

I am renewing this month because I would hate to lose touch with these coastal champions, and with you. Keep the U.S. coastal network strong. Please renew your membership or join today.

TOP FIVE PICKS FOR COASTAL CINEMATOGRAPHY IN 2017

By Kasey R. Jacobs, TCS Communications Chair

2017 was a year of thrilling blockbuster movie releases. Many of this year’s films had stunning cinematography of coastlines from around the world — some iconic and some hidden treasures.

Here are five films reviewed for their coastal cinematography.

When I look at films like these I can’t help but think about the men and women of coastal management who work to preserve and manage these seascapes everyday. Without them, these coastlines would not not be in any shape for their closeups.

If you want breathtaking cinematography of our oceans and coasts by your favorite filmmakers in the future, please consider supporting The Coastal Society today. Visit our donation page.


Star Wars: The Last Jedi

 

Star_Wars_The_Last_Jedi

No spoilers here. All we will say is that the island from the hidden planet of Ahch-To from The Force Awakens plays a big role and does not only exist in a galaxy far, far away. The remote island where filmmakers show is off the coast of Ireland, named Skellig Michael. The island is one of two Skellig islands. The smaller one is called Little Skellig and Skellig Michael is also called Great Skellig. The island was home to monks who removed themselves from civilization between the sixth and eighth centuries to practice Christianity for an estimated 600 years. The huts shown in the movie weren’t built for the movie. They are very real! As coastal professionals we know that the cultural and historical features of our seascapes are very much part of coastal systems; the coastal cinematography of Star Wars: The Last Jedi is surprising proof.

Skillig Michael. Photo Credit: Flickr/James West
Skillig Michael. Photo Credit: Flickr/James West

Justice League

 

Justice_League_film_poster

While we wait for 2018’s release of Aquaman fans were given a bit of a preview with Justice League where Batman recruits Aquaman. The director Zack Snyder filmed some Aquaman scenes (including scenes with Mera, marine warrior and Queen of Atlantis) in Iceland. Beforehand Snyder released a few photos taken on location in Iceland. The photos show Aquaman posing on a gravel road in the desolate Arctic landscape of the northern coast of the Westfjords, known as Strandir. A local boatshed in the village Gjögur, which has been fitted with a sign reading “Newfoundland’s finest seafood”, and a third landscape shot from Strandir. The non-fictional municipality of Árneshreppur has a mere 53 inhabitants tucked into the Strandir coast. In 1917, an industrial herring factor was opened in Djúpavík, but it was abandoned in the 1940s due to the plummeting price of herring. The factory, situated near a small creek by the fjord called Reykjarfjörður, appears in Justice League as a key meeting point for Batman and Aquaman. For those in-the-know, the scene depicts the struggles not only against saving humanity from comic book enemies but also from managing fisheries.

Fjallsjökull. Photo Credit: Flickr/Steve Fernie
Fjallsjökull. Photo Credit: Flickr/Steve Fernie
Amber Heard in the role of Mera in Justice League. Released on Twitter by Warner Bros/Zack Snyder/DC Comics.
Amber Heard in the role of Mera in Justice League. Released on Twitter by Warner Bros/Zack Snyder/DC Comics.

Wonder Woman

 

Wonder_Woman_(2017_film)

The film begins on the fictional island of Themyscira. Creating Wonder Woman’s island home was one of the most challenging aspects of the film’s production design. Two-time Oscar nominated production designer Aline Bonetto told the Hollywood Reporter, “We talked about creating a beautiful island, but not being too close to the Greek islands, which is the obvious inspiration. We wanted a beautiful, natural environment that the Amazons protect as the environment protects them. It’s lush, green.” They filmed the island scenes in Italy and along the Amalfi Coast. The challenge came most during the main battle scene. Filmmakers needed a white beach surrounded by cliffs. Bonetto explained, “But if you look for a real beach with cliff, it’s not possible to film because of the high tides.” The enchanting coastal topography captured by the filmmakers matches the power Wonder Woman learns she possesses.

Palinuro Bay. Photo Credit: Flickr/Bart van Maarseveen
Palinuro Bay. Photo Credit: Flickr/Bart van Maarseveen

Dunkirk

 

Dunkirk_Film_poster

It took more than 60 ships from nine different countries over five months and one marine coordinator to pull off what might be the biggest naval film shoot in history. Neil Andrea, Dunkirk’s Marine Coordinator, filmed on location in Dunkirk with real war ships and fighter planes to recreate the epic battle scenes rather than fill in backdrops with CGI. Andrea is a veteran marine coordinator with a portfolio that includes the Pirates of the Caribbean franchise, Captain Phillipsand National TreasureCoastal professionals play more of a role in filmmaking than you would think! (Yes, this is a teaser for a future TCS Blog article.)

Sunset at Dunkirk Harbor. Photo Credit: Flickr/10x.film
Sunset at Dunkirk Harbor. Photo Credit: Flickr/10x.film

Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Men Tell No Tales

 

Pirates_of_the_Caribbean,_Dead_Men_Tell_No_Tales

As has become the norm in each of the Pirates films the ocean shots were absolutely stunning and the sailing scenes impressive. For tall ship enthusiasts the return of the Black Pearl and Flying Dutchman were probably expected from trailers but a new ship was introduced, the Silent Mary. Perhaps more surprisingly, this installment of the Pirates of the Caribbean franchise did not have a single scene filmed in the Caribbean. Past Pirates movies were filmed in St. Vincent, Dominica, The Bahamas, Puerto Rico, Hawaii, England, and California, among other places. Dead Men Tell No Tales was filmed almost entirely in Australia, mainly in the area where the movie was based in the Gold Coast. In fact, Dead Men Tell No Tales was the biggest motion picture ever shot in Australia. Coastal professionals and Captain Jack Sparrow know, “Not all treasure is silver and gold, mate.” 

Sunrise on the Gold Coast. Photo Credit: Flickr/Tatters
Sunrise on the Gold Coast. Photo Credit: Flickr/Tatters

 

 

Did I miss any movies that had breathtaking coastal cinematography in 2017 (blockbuster hits or independent films)? Write me a quick note or create a comment below and we will update the list.

FIVE WAYS TO SUPPORT THE COASTS DURING THE HOLIDAYS

Benevolent hearts abound during the holidays, and not just on Giving Tuesday. Here are a few quick ways you can support the coasts throughout this holiday season.

  1. Make a point to visit you favorite local coastal spot in November, December, and January and bring friends. While strolling, kayaking, or bird watching make sure they know about the significance of the area and any management issues they can play a role in as community members.
Sanctuary designation will allow NOAA programs to supplement and complement existing state and local programs that aim to protect, study, interpret, and manage this unique area. Photo Credit: Daryl Byrd.
Foe example, if you are in the Maryland area, visit Mallows Bay. It is a proposed National Marine Sanctuary. Designation would allow NOAA programs to supplement and complement existing state and local programs that aim to protect, study, interpret, and manage this unique area. Photo Credit: Daryl Byrd.

 

2. Shop for the Holidays using Amazon Smile. 
Did you know Amazon donates 0.5% of the price of purchases to your charitable organization of choice using AmazonSmile? Click the Amazon Smile link before you start your online shopping with Amazon and make sure to choose The Coastal Society. Happy Shopping!

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3. Buy TCS Merchandise – it is a Great Gift for Co-Workers!
Not sure what to get a colleague for your office holiday Grab Bag? How about a cellphone case with TCS logo, a mug or reusable water bottle, a TCS polo shirt or a 3/4-sleeve woman’s raglan t-shirt? Select from other styles and colors, too. Purchase here.

Merchandise_TimeforaChange

4. Donate Directly to TCS Today. 
Your direct donation to The Coastal Society supports our ongoing work to foster dialogue, forge partnerships and promote communications and education, and support young professionals and students in their professional development.  You can donate via the TCS website. 

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5. Encourage a friend or colleague to become a member of TCS. 
Our strength (and fun!) comes from the network of coastal professionals and students. Members receive our coveted monthly jobs list, a subscription to the international journal Coastal Management, TCS Blog digest, & more! Send them this link.

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TCS MEMBERS IN OREGON AND SOUTH CAROLINA REPORT THEIR EXPERIENCES DURING THE ECLIPSE

Editor’s Note: This article is a follow-up to two other TCS articles on the Great American Eclipse of 2017.

OREGON

Meg Reed | Oregon Coastal Management Program, Newport, OR

Newport, OR – The morning of the total solar eclipse started out the way many mornings on the coast in the summer do, foggy. I worried that I wouldn’t be able to fully experience the solar eclipse and that if I chose to drive further inland, I would be stuck in traffic and crowds. Instead, I decided to wait it out. By 8:30 am, the mist was burning off and by the time I brought my chair to the backyard at 9 am, the sun was fully out and there was barely a cloud in the sky! I couldn’t believe our luck!

My excitement intensified when I put on my solar eclipse glasses and saw the first sign of the eclipse starting around 9:04 am – a small chunk missing from the top right side of the sun, like someone had taken a small nibble out of a cookie. The moon was starting its movement across the sun and it was so exhilarating to see it happening right before my eyes! Over the next half hour, I continued to watch the sun disappear slowly behind the moon through my viewing glasses. After about 40-minutes or so, I noticed that the light was getting dimmer and the air temperature was getting colder. I had to put on more layers as I sat watching the light continue to dim and the temperature continue to drop.

Finally, around 10:15 am, the last sliver of the sun went behind the moon and I could take off my glasses to fully witness totality. The sky was instantly dark – comparable to the last moments of twilight – and the sun’s glow was shining around the moon. It was so incredibly wonderful! I wasn’t prepared for how amazing the moment of totality would be. It was truly awe-inspiring. While I was with only my husband in our backyard, we heard whoops and shouts of excitement across the neighborhood from others watching the event. Small fireworks starting going off nearby as people celebrated. You could feel the excitement in the air as we all stopped to observe this event.

And then, just like that, the sun started shining through the other side as the moment of totality ended and I put my glasses back on to watch the moon continue its journey the other way. The sunlight came back and over the next hour, the temperature got warmer and the light got stronger until the eclipse officially ended around 11:36 am in Newport and it was a normal sunny day again.

"My excitement intensified when I put on my solar eclipse glasses and saw the first sign of the eclipse starting around 9:04am..."
“My excitement intensified when I put on my solar eclipse glasses and saw the first sign of the eclipse starting around 9:04am…”

SOUTH CAROLINA

Rebecca Love | Coastal Management Specialist at NOAA Office for Coastal Management

I watched the eclipse with my family and neighbors at the end of our street.  The street ends at the Ashley River so the view was great – plenty of open sky above and marsh below.  It was a cloudy afternoon with a thunderstorm threatening to move in, but we were able to see the eclipse and totality through the clouds and the occasional gap in the clouds.   My two daughters were so excited.  We talked about what we might see and feel and how to watch safely.  That morning they made eclipse cupcakes to share with fellow on-lookers.

Totality was 94 amazing seconds!  Not only was it awesome and a little eerie, but it was a sort of bonding experience with those around you.   As the sky grew darker, everyone became silent.  Street lights came on, the temperature dropped a few degrees, a few stars became visible and everyone was in awe.  Afterwards some people clapped, some left and went home, and my 8-year-old said “that was awesome!”  I feel so lucky to have experienced this with my family from my own front yard.

Hanging with the neighbors at the end of the street
Hanging with the neighbors at the end of the street
Kids and me in the yard.
Kids and me in the yard.

Margaret Allen | The Baldwin Group at NOAA’s Office for Coastal Management

I should have stayed close to home. I missed the whole darn thing. As I was driving out to the eclipse party, the sky was getting darker (weather-related, not eclipse-related) and it started raining. Booo. The coast (where I came from) had some clouds, but stayed pretty clear. Inland (where I went), was stormy and cloudy the whole time. Eclipse-viewing-location fail.

But even though I didn’t see it, I did have a cool eclipse experience. Actually, I did get to see one little glimpse when I made a stop and whipped out my eclipse glasses on the way out to the party–that was cool. And even though the weather was a mixture of cloudy, sprinkling, and/or pouring the whole time, at the moment of totality, we still got to experience the “everything got dark” moment. Nighttime dark, not just overcast dark. And the temperature dropped what seemed like 15 degrees. We were all a little wet from the rain, and we all were freezing. It’s a strange feeling to get the chills outside in Charleston in August. To make it even more exciting, we were looking out over the Ashley River, and you could see the lightning bolts over the water and the thunder was rumbling. Spooky. We had fun talking about what people in ancient times must have thought when something like that happened. We decided they must have thought the world was ending. Even Lizzie and Ellie weren’t sure about the whole thing, and my lap was full of chilly and slightly freaked out little girls. Actually I think their biggest concern was that they might have to go to bed since it was dark. Haha.

So I didn’t see it, but I ‘experienced’ it. And it was a fun party, we grilled out, splashed around in the puddles, roasted marshmallows, and had fun looking up when and where we could see the next total eclipse.  And my kids still have their eye sight. So that’s a plus. Maybe in 2024 we’ll head to Texas or New York and try again.

COSMIC MIGRATIONS

By Erik Swanson, Oregon State University TCS Student Chapter

Editor’s Note: This article is a follow-up to two other TCS articles on the Great American Eclipse of 2017.

From atop Dimple Hill, part of Oregon State University’s (OSU) McDonald Research Forest, a crowd of more than a hundred people enjoyed a vantage point stretching from the Cascades through the Willamette Valley and to the Oregon Coast Range. As totality drew closer, nearly all in attendance now had donned their paper protective eye-wear. A thin speck of sun shone from behind the moon before all went black; the cosmic signal to rip off those funny glasses. The crowd cheered as the total eclipse burst on display for about two minutes. As many in attendance had migrated from all over the world to share in the wonder of the eclipse, simultaneously, millions of Pacific Ocean zooplankton in range of totality strangely migrated to the surface of the ocean.

More than just awe-inspiring, a monumental event such as blotting out the daytime sun not surprisingly impacts the natural world in many curious ways. Birds have been reported to respond by singing songs reserved for dusk, but less obvious are the impacts to the oceans. OSU, a partner with the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI),  was uniquely positioned this year in the line of totality, an exciting opportunity for oceanographers to observe how a cosmic event like the 2017 eclipse can affect the oceans.

Ocean Observatory group recovering one of our surface moorings. These are the moorings that make the meteorological and fixed water column measurements shown in the graphic below. Photo Credit: Jonathon Fram
Ocean Observatory group recovering one of our surface moorings. These are the moorings that make the meteorological and fixed water column measurements shown in the graphic below.
Photo Credit: Jonathon Fram

Dr. Jonathan Fram, an oceanographer at the OSU operated Ocean Observing Center, in Corvallis, Oregon, facilitated those observations. He predicted that the daily zooplankton migration event would be affected, as it is dependent on the amount of sunlight penetrating the ocean. During the daylight hours, these millions of tiny creatures can be found in the deep, dark, depths of the ocean. At dusk, they begin a long migration to the water surface, where they spend the night before dawn marks a return to the deep. Fram, using bioacoustic sonar equipment stationed off the Oregon coast, found that the zooplankton responded to the eclipse and the reduction of light in the water column by beginning their daily migration to the surface. Before reaching the water surface, totality was complete and the slow increase of light signified a sort of false alarm for the tiny creatures and a return to the ocean depths.

The bioacoustic sonars located 10 miles off the coast of Newport, Oregon, and 40 miles off the coast of Waldport, Oregon, are connected to shore via hundreds of miles of cable. The University of Washington OOI team laid and maintain these cables that encase a power cord and fiber optic cable for data transmission. Connecting these data-capturing instruments directly to shore allows scientists to observe the data capture in real-time, download the data in a short amount of time, and provide results to the public with little delay. Results of this experiment were available only 12 hours following the eclipse.

“Scientists make predictions all the time but often cannot share their results in a time frame that captures the public’s interest,” said Fram.  “This event was a unique opportunity to provide the public with the results of a large scale experiment on the same day it occurred.”

 Shelf bioacoustic sonar instrument before deployment Photo Credit: Jonathon Fram
Shelf bioacoustic sonar instrument before deployment
Photo Credit: Jonathon Fram

Two offshore surface moorings, part of the Endurance Array, were uniquely positioned in the line of totality and captured data such as air and water temperatures and shortwave radiation during the eclipse. Air temperature on the beach and further inland was significantly reduced, as many people experienced during the eclipse, but water and offshore air temperatures were not impacted much. This is not surprising, according to Fram, as offshore air temperature is more dependent on ocean temperatures. The amount of sunlight—shortwave radiation—penetrating the ocean was also greatly reduced during the eclipse event.

 Shelf bioacoustic sonar instrument while it was being deployed via ROV. Photo Credit: Jonathon Fram
Shelf bioacoustic sonar instrument while it was being deployed via ROV.
Photo Credit: Jonathon Fram

Fram’s work is one of many experiments and research projects currently underway at OSU made possible by the OSU’s operation of the Endurance Array portion of OOI. The OOI allows scientists throughout the world to access oceanographic data by tapping into an array of instruments deployed offshore to capture a vast multitude of oceanographic variables. At least one thousand instruments are located in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and Canada. Fram said, this year he hopes to improve the accessibility of data his center manages for scientists and the public.

As a NASA Space Grant, Sea Grant and Land Grant university, OSU works to bring scientists and students from a wide range of backgrounds together to confront the major challenges faced by the oceans now and in the future. The Hatfield Marine Science Center located in Newport, Oregon, is an additional OSU resource that welcomes these diverse scientists and students. It serves as a marine and oceanographic laboratory and classroom for seven OSU colleges and six state and federal agencies. The visitor center also provides educational opportunities for K-12 and the public.

The Oregon Coast provides many exciting opportunities for students and professionals in the fields of oceanography, marine biology, marine fisheries and others. An added benefit to studying or working in Oregon is that beaches are legally public lands. Within those approximately 363-miles of public beachs, bays, and estuaries there are endless scientific wonders left to explore and environmental vulnerabilities to confront for future stewards of the coasts.

 

Meteorological and fixed water column measurements taken during the eclipse.
Meteorological and fixed water column measurements taken during the eclipse.

LISTENING FOR A CHANGE

By Lisa Graichen, Climate Adaptation Program Coordinator, University of New Hampshire Cooperative Extension and New Hampshire Sea Grant

Over the summer, coastal stakeholders from Maine and New Hampshire gathered in Wells, Maine, at the 2017 Beaches Conference to share updates and lessons learned from research and outreach efforts. The first Maine Beaches Conference was in 2000, and this year’s – the 11th – was the first to include New Hampshire. Over 200 people attended, with sessions on a wide range of topics, from using unmanned aerial systems (or drones) for habitat mapping to aquaculture curricula, marine mammal rescue, coastal law and policy issues, and much more.

Beaches Conference Social-Wells NERR
Beaches Conference social at Wells NERR , Maine

What struck me the most about the conference was the breadth of the participants’ backgrounds. I spoke with an emergency manager from a local naval shipyard; listened to an artist describe her coastal mapping work as a means for communication and capturing love of place; learned from experts in ocean mapping, archeology, and environmental law; and heard from a representative of the US Department of Homeland Security. Colleagues shared examples translating research and monitoring programs from one state to the other. For example, a team in New Hampshire is learning from others in Maine how to build a volunteer beach profile monitoring program. While there are several unique, place-based factors in coastal management, there is a lot we can learn from the coastal management strategies and lessons in other places. Kristen Grant from Maine Sea Grant and University of Maine Extension shared stories from the Netherlands about stakeholder engagement in flood defense. She stressed the importance of providing opportunities for people to listen to, learn from, and build trust in each other.

New Castle
Newcastle, Maine

The most unique part of the day was a plenary session called “Listening for a Change: Stories of Our Responses to Sea-Level Rise” that brought together a philosophy professor, a playwright, and a climatologist to share their reflections on climate change and sea-level rise. First, the philosophy professor wondered aloud what proof there was that carbon dioxide is causing global warming, and how we could distinguish between different sources of carbon dioxide. As he worked through his thinking on this subject, you could sense palpable discomfort in the room as he shared a somewhat skeptical perspective. I felt confused to hear questions being framed as unresolved that scientists know the answers to, and I saw others in the audience shake their heads and shift in their seats uncomfortably. The playwright was next. She described feeling like she is “not a native” in the world of science, and struggling to try to wrap her head around the impacts of climate change but not knowing where to look for information. She mentioned feeling scared as well as scolded for contributing to anthropogenic climate change, but not knowing where to look for valid information or what to do about it. Finally, the climatologist described his experience with a bipartisan effort in New Hampshire called the Coastal Risk and Hazards Commission and grappling with different perspectives about science and sources of information through that process. He suggested that solving problems isn’t about convincing people to see things your way, though we often feel a desire to try to do that. These were three people from different professional and personal backgrounds, all describing different experiences with understanding the science of climate change.

Seapoint Beach, Kittery, Maine
Seapoint Beach, Kittery, Maine

Unfortunately, there wasn’t much time left for the panel discussion and audience dialogue following the three speakers, and the only person who had a chance to ask a question used the opportunity to try to rebut the philosophy professor’s skepticism. I think there is often a desire to present scientific information to counter misinformation or misunderstandings, but we can sometimes skip the step of trying to really understand and acknowledge why people have those perspectives, where they’re coming from, and how best to engage in a productive dialogue.

I recently finished listening to Strangers in Their Own Land by Arlie Russell Hochschild, a sociologist from UC Berkeley, who journeyed to climb over what he called the “empathy wall” to gain an in-depth understanding of people who identify with the Tea Party.


An empathy wall is an obstacle to deep understanding of another person, one that can make us feel indifferent or even hostile to those who hold different beliefs or whose childhood is rooted in different circumstances.”Arlie Russel Hoschild


Academic or professional conferences can often be opportunities for like-minded folks to gather and learn from each other, which is certainly valuable, but it is important to remember the voices that may not be represented there. Let’s reflect on how we can bring those voices in, acknowledge different experiences and perspectives, and challenge ourselves in how we respond. I am grateful for the opportunity at this conference to be put in the uncomfortable space of confronting skepticism about climate change, feeling my initial emotional response, and reflecting on the need to really listen and figure out how to interact in a productive way. Especially in these highly polarized times, one of our most critical charges working in coastal management is to take the time to listen, face the discomfort of different perspectives, and work on communicating science-based information in ways that resonate. In other words, learning how to climb the “empathy walls,” understand other perspectives, and acknowledge others’ experiences. It’s not an easy task, but it may be our most important.

Ogunquit, Maine
Ogunquit, Maine

TCS VISITS WITH A LEGEND: AN INTERVIEW WITH BARBARA FEGAN

Editor’s Note: This article is a reprint from the TCS Bulletin in 2000 (Volume 22(2)) in celebration of the 33rd anniversary of Coastweeks. 


by Thomas E. Bigford, Policy co-Director, American Fisheries Society

The BULLETIN thanks Ms. Fegan for sharing her memories and her inspiration.

As I contemplated the meaning of Coastweeks 2000 this past summer, I found myself thinking often of how one person’s idea coalesced into an event, then a national and international celebration, and now a tradition. Thoughts of those formative days of Coastweeks invariably reminded me of the enthusiastic leadership provided by a single visionary — Barbara Fegan.  I caught up with her this past September as she was enjoying retirement in Wellfleet, Massachusetts, the Cape Cod community where she perfected her coastal advocacy roots. Although she is approaching her 80th birthday (“not till next year! “) and she “officially” retired by choice from public life in 1994, we can rest assured that Ms. Fegan remains a visionary. To me, she’s also a treasured friend. This interview offers glimpses of how Coastweeks evolved and where we might be headed in the coming decades, all foretold by a true coastal hero.

How did the concept of Coastweeks begin?

My idea can be traced back to 1980. That year had been designated as Year of the Coast, and there was great enthusiasm for coastal issues, I had great hope that the designation would inspire action, but the energy level wasn’t there yet. The next year brought another round of success when the Coastal Zone Management Act was reauthorized, but there was still no structure for real coastal activism. The Coastal Society’s 1982 conference in Baltimore on “Communicating Coastal Information” rejuvenated my creative juices. The Year of the Coast was fresh in our minds, the CZMA had been strengthened, and we received great news that President Reagan had just signed a law to protect coastal barriers. I was thinking about how to increase public participation along the lines of Earth Day rather than some corporate model. I wanted to be outside organiza~ tional structures, not constrained by them. With society racing faster and faster to get to the coast, I was convinced we should capture some of that energy in protecting our beaches and shores. The idea of a coastal festival intrigued me. Friends in more than 250 chapters of the League of Women Voters and Shirley Taylor with the Sierra Club in Florida offered the support network needed to launch the idea. I shared my concept as a comment from the floor at TCS8 and hoped the idea would grow.

Can you share some memories about that first Coastweek Celebration?

I remember the date – October 12, 1982. I was flying home from TCS8 with Rich Delaney, the new director of the Massachusetts coastal zone program. We talked about the Coastweek idea and what to do next. He was planning a fall conference and invited me so Coastweek could be part of the discussion. Rich also got Governor King to proclaim the first Coastweek that fall in Massachusetts. We were off and running! I operated Coastweek simply, with only volunteers. Those of us involved in the early years met all sorts of folks, some outright crooks who thought I was a coastal heiress and wanted some of my millions but many more who shared my hopes for a better coast. Those first few months confirmed that we had an idea that could work!

What were your early ideas for Coastweeks?

Mostly, I saw a volunteer organization. If we had a paid staff we would have been beholden to some organization. I wanted no dues, no reports, and very little structure. I organized things for the first few years but kept it very simple. I only communicated by mail, and never sent second mailings or reminders. No phone calls either-that would have taken too much time. That approach, coupled with new and old friends in the League of Women Voters, Sierra Club, and The Coastal Society started a national movement. I also wanted to work with other related efforts. Judy Nielsen with the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife had attended a marine debris conference in Hawaii and adopted the idea of a citizen-based, coastal beach clean-up to collect information on marine litter. There were other events around the country in late September and early October. That’s when the seven day Coastweek evolved into the longer event spanning two months that came to be known as Coastweeks with an “s”.

Do you have any fondest memories from those early years? 

Certainly! There were plenty of characters, and lots of crazy ideas. But I loved it since every idea generated interest in the coast. I remember ideological people in Toledo who were driven to clean up the Ohio coast, they wanted to reverse the pollution that led to the Cuyahoga River fire and other environmental disasters. There were the ever-hopeful teachers who organized camping excursions for Texas schoolchildren. And there was the University of Colorado Glee Club that hosted a Sea Chanty party. It was landlocked events like that one in Colorado that inspired a tongue-in-cheek campaign to “Save our Kansas Coast.” Everyone was getting involved.

After a year or two, Coastweeks was here to stay! It really helped over the years to have some great individuals deeply involved. Linda Maraniss was one gem! She and her colleagues at the Center for Marine Conservation helped with Coastweeks administration, Coastsweep beach clean .. up data collection, and so much more.

How has the concept evolved?

I’ve seen some major changes, but the basic celebration continues with the same volunteer spirit we envisioned. Annual Coastweeks calendars are still dominated by small events built around education and sharing. However, the overall Coastweeks structure has changed. During the past four years or so, agencies and organizations have tried to capture the spirit. Many volunteer citizens have been replaced by people driven by their professions to exploit or protect the coast. It isn’t the same. It’s a different language, built around the need to produce results rather than simply participate. Coastweeks shouldn’t be measured in jobs and political favors, but it’s happening. I hope the new Coastweeks doesn’t become another government program or corporate marketing campaign.

What about the coasts themselves? Do you think Coastweeks has changed society, or that the issues have changed since the early 1980s?

There’s definitely a change underway. I see a shift from massive programs to local efforts. People are getting involved at the neighborhood level through local groups. I’m delighted by the trend. Whenever you can get a group of like-minded people, supported by a skeletal organization and deep convictions, you can make progress. But you need people who are fulltime participants, People can’t buy a voice; they need to enroll and engage. That’s a real issue in coastal communities where many taxpayers are seasonal residents with their own agendas. I’m hopeful that self-conceived, self-directed efforts are increasing.

Where do you think we’re headed in the next decade or so?

Coastal issues are like the tides. Issues come and go, sometimes leaving debris behind that prompts action but usually leaving nothing noticeable. There are also tides in public and political leanings. I don’t know where we’re heading because much of what I see is the same as a few years ago, but years of small changes add up over the decades to make a real difference. Sometimes it takes even longer to recognize those changes. I think that’s happening along our coasts, There are changes in social structures that will affect the mix of people and expectations for coastal management. There are also changes on the science side. The more we know, the more we realize we don’t know. We continue to make errors, only now we live longer and must face our errors personally. Some impacts are translated inland, such as storm-related damages that now affect landlocked counties and peoples. I trust the hidden genius in each of us will sense changes and prepare accordingly. I recognized a wave back in 1982 and jumped on. There are other waves now that are waiting for us. Good people will respond. If we praise their efforts they will remain engaged as citizens, small groups, and local networks. That’s how Coastweeks began and how future ideas will succeed. We just need to keep the energy level focused in the neighborhoods, supported by corporations and large groups rather than replaced by them. These changes are organic. They won’t kill us. They’ll be more successful if we focus on sources rather than fixes. Along the coast, let’s search for the reasons why something doesn’t work rather than heap solutions on a broken system. Nonpoint source pollution is one opportunity awaiting citizen action.

Thanks for sharing your philosophy on coastal activism. Do you have any closing comments?

Just one comment, one that is embedded in much of what I read and how I have shaped my actions. We need to read more history. We need to learn what has happened in the world and why. Those insights will help us to recognize behaviors, cultures, and differences. It will also help us understand where we are headed. I’m reading R.W. Davies’ enlightening book on European history. Sit down with a history book, a dictionary, and a map so you can understand our world. Then apply your new wisdom to the coast and we’ll be headed in the right direction.

 

 

BarbaraFeganInterview_2000_OriginalScan

Read this interview in its original form in the TCS Bulletin 2000 Volume 2(2).

 

 

TCS MEMBERS PLAN FOR THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE OF 2017

By Kasey R. Jacobs, TCS Communications Chair

While researching the coastal effects of the Great American Solar Eclipse of 2017 for TCS Blog article “Coasts in Shadow“, I reached out to fellow TCS members in Oregon and South Carolina to find out about their eclipse plans. Oregon will be the first state to experience the eclipse and South Carolina the last.

Below are their responses.

We will be following up with these TCS members post-eclipse to capture their experiences. Please share your own plans or experiences in the comments section below.

OREGON

Oregon State University’s TCS Student Chapter

The Chapter (a.k.a “Fisheries and Wildlife Science Club”) will be attending a lecture by Associate Professor Jonathan Fram on the offshore Endurance Array and the measurements it will be collecting before, during, and after the solar eclipse. We will be broadcasting the lecture live on the TCS Facebook Page on Saturday, August 19th at 2:00PM PST:

The lecture description by Associate Professor Fram is:

View from the Coast: During the eclipse, a vast network of sensors on oceanographic moorings off the Oregon Coast will be measuring its effect on the ocean through tides. Hear from oceanographer/professor Jonathan Fram about how bioacoustic sonars will measure fish and the zooplankton they eat, while other sensors will detect how the eclipse affects light and temperature at the sea surface.

David R. Perry | So. Coast Regional Representative. Department of Land Conservation and Development. Ocean and Coastal Services Division

We live within the path of totality.  There is a ton of hype coming from the local chamber of commerce about visiting the coast to view the eclipse.   The cost of a room or campsite on August 21st can be 5 or 10 times the usual rate.  Even so, we expect to be inundated with tourists coming for the event.  The problem is, meteorological records indicate that there is a 50/50 chance that a marine layer will prevail along the coastline at mid-morning when the eclipse will occur, so the sun may not be visible at the beach during that timeframe!  If the marine layer is evident that day, my wife and I will head inland with some friends to higher ground in the Siuslaw National Forest where we hope to get above or beyond the cloud layer.  For us, the total eclipse presents an opportunity to see one of nature’s most rare and awesome spectacles from our own back yard!

Meg Reed | Oregon Coastal Management Program, Newport, OR

Oregon is expecting about 1 million more people to be here to view the eclipse. I work with emergency managers coast-wide who have been planning and preparing for this event for a year or more. I will be heeding their advice to locals to “shelter in place!” I plan to watch the eclipse from my backyard, but if it’s cloudy or foggy, I will probably just watch NASA’s live stream. It will be exciting, either way, to experience this once-in-a-lifetime event and the sudden darkness that will occur when the moon covers the sun.

 

SOUTH CAROLINA

Rebecca Love | Coastal Management Specialist at NOAA Office for Coastal Management

 I’m going to avoid hitting the roads and stay local to watch the eclipse.  My family and I will walk to Hampton Park (in Charleston, SC) with some neighborhood friends.  I’m looking forward to the period of totality and being able to experience this event with my two daughters.  I’m curious to see how dark it will get and whether we’ll feel a brief drop in temperature.

Margaret Allen | The Baldwin Group at NOAA’s Office for Coastal Management

I am definitely planning to watch and do something fun! There are so many fun events here to choose from. I was thinking I’d stay close to home, but I might go out to my family plantation to watch. Wherever I am, I am just excited to see the look on Lizzie and Ellie’s faces (5 and 3), and I want to make sure they wear their glasses (don’t care to blind my children at this point).

If not out there, we’re going to our local pool club with a bunch of other families. They have a special event with eclipse themed cocktails and food.

Anyway, it is a HUGE deal here. All the local schools are closed. (they start next Thursday, go for 2 days, then are off for the eclipse). Everyone from the county parks, to county libraries, to neighborhood associations, to private clubs/restaurants are hosting events. There’s a yoga event, all kinds of things.

The other funny thing is watching/hearing about everyone trying to get their eclipse glasses–lots of places here are selling them, local libraries are giving them away, but there are a ton of places (esp online) selling fake ones that don’t really work, and that’s been a problem.

COASTS IN SHADOW: BENEATH THE WAVES DURING THE GREAT AMERICAN SOLAR ECLIPSE 2017

By Kasey R. Jacobs, Communications Chair, The Coastal Society. This article is also published on Marine Science Today as part of a TCS-MST Collaboration

Photo Credit: Kasey R. Jacobs
Photo Credit: Kasey R. Jacobs

 

Minutes before any eclipse observer can see the moon commandeer the light of the Sun on August 21st, the Pacific Ocean will perceive the changes first.

A serendipitous event for Jonathan Fram and the array of scientific sensors he manages off the coast of Oregon. Though not designed nor deployed for measuring how the Great American Solar Eclipse affects the ocean, Associate Professor Fram, of Oregon State University, is taking advantage of their location in the path of totality. And he is not the only one. Physical scientists on the coasts of Oregon and South Carolina are gearing up to deploy data-collecting instruments, anglers are scouting for the best fishing spots, universities are looking to draw people into the joy of science, and coastal managers are preparing for the inundation of people in parks and conservation areas.

Most eclipse observers are thinking about the bizarre occurrences they might witness on land and in the sky, and not what they can expect on the coasts and in the ocean. As the entire nation looks up to the heavens and around the land on August 21st, what will be happening off the coasts?

History of ocean-focused eclipse studies

Scientists and eclipse observers for centuries have eagerly observed land-based effects, at least as far back as a total eclipse in 1544, but very few have asked the coastal question. Surprisingly, the published literature remains meager today.

The Boston Society of Natural History conducted an extensive observation project to document the behavior of wild and domestic animals during the 1932 New England total solar eclipse, including coastal and marine wildlife. Their eclipse, like ours, took place in the month of August. In today’s terminology, we would call their survey a large-scale “citizen science” project.  The Society partnered with media outlets to publish announcements prior to the eclipse to elicit observations for the survey. The Boston Globe, The Boston Herald and Traveler, The Boston Transcript, The Boston Post, The Boston American, and the Christian Science Monitor all gave important space, often on the front page, and mentioned the study in radio broadcasts. They combined these citizen observations with official reports by game wardens in the northeastern states, and reports submitted by naturalists. They mapped the observations and a special eclipse committee analyzed all 498 data points and published their findings in the Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Science of 1935.

The 1932 Eclipse Committee found that harbor seals were unaffected by the eclipse while wild fish were more active. Wild brook trout, white perch, and small-mouthed black bass were eating more during the eclipse and stopped when the light returned. A Mr. H. Bowley in Massachusetts reported that Common Pickerel “always jump out of the water in this part of the river at dark, began jumping out during the darkness of the eclipse.”

Shore birds, like fish hawks, lesser yellow-legs, gulls, terns, willets, and roseate terns may act differently than land birds during an eclipse. Rather than go quiet or roost, they become more active, vocal, and exposed, as is the case for other nocturnal birds. Solar eclipses tend to cause diurnal (day-time) birds to go quiet and nocturnal (night-time) birds to emerge. The committee noted that gulls showed less reaction than the terns and most other shore birds, as some did respond as though night was coming by returning to the mainland to roost. They stressed that reactions appear individual and not species-specific.

In the latter part of the 20th century, scientific instruments began to be used in coastal eclipse studies. A deep scattering layer in the North Atlantic was monitored during the 1972 total solar eclipse using an echo recorder. In 2006, an oceanographic cruise on board a Hellenic Center for Marine Research ship measured, and later modeled, effects on marine zooplankton during a total solar eclipse in the Eastern Mediterranean. The research team found underwater profiles of temperature and salinity remained almost constant yet most zooplankton reacted similarly to the changes in light.  Different species responded at different rates and intensities.  Ciliates responded to the decreased light intensity by adopting night-time behavior, spreading themselves vertically within the water column. Some copepodites showed a vertical migratory movement while others displayed no significant differences.  Previous studies showed the free-swimming larvae of shrimp, clams, snails and barnacles vertically redistribute themselves and/or migrate upwards during total solar eclipses.

Fishermen prepare

As these planktonic crustacea swim to the surface, it would follow that the marine life that feast on them also rise. The night-time behavior of fishes and marine mammals during solar eclipse events could be due to the movement of their food sources or triggered by the decreased light. Not enough research is available on the subject to make this determination. Measuring rapid changes in a short amount of time in the ocean water column simultaneously with changes in animal distributions is no small undertaking.

Photo Credit: Kasey R. Jacobs
Photo Credit: Kasey R. Jacobs

Fishermen have a propensity to already know about phenomena scientists stumble upon to study. In their renowned nonchalant manner, it seems they are already aware the fish will be biting on August 21st.  For over a month, recreational fishermen have been sharing with one another the best fishing spots in the path of totality. Anglers are hoping to fish night-time species during the day. Though the Sportsman Channel reports some fishermen think there won’t be any effect being the change is so brief.

Anglers in partial eclipse areas shouldn’t be discouraged at the missed opportunity. In 1906, in a letter to the editor of Nature, an A. Mosely wrote about the partial eclipse of August 30, 1905 seen in England. “All the morning the sport had been indifferent, but as the eclipse neared its maximum the fish suddenly became ravenous, and I took more in that hour than all the rest of the day. My experience was also that of all the other boats out there at the time.”

There is still little information on deep-sea or coastal fishing as most of the fish-spot-sharing online has been focused on rivers and freshwater species.

Gary Lewis, host of Frontier Unlimited TV and book author, wrote in an article on The Register-Guard, “When the light goes down and the caddis pop, the fish, like the rest of us, will be looking to the sky.”

“From physics to fish.” Ocean observation during eclipse

Jonathan Fram is hoping the massive network of sensors on oceanographic moorings he helps manage, called the Endurance Array, will be able to collect data useful for fisheries and other ocean subjects. The array is operated by Oregon State University and the University of Washington for the Ocean Observatories Initiative.  Bioacoustic sonars will measure fish and their prey, zooplankton, while other sensors, like gliders and profilers, will detect how the eclipse affects light and temperature at the sea surface. Fram tells The Coastal Society it can “measure everything from physics to fish.” These sensors are part of a twenty-five-year NSF-funded project that became operational in 2015. The array can monitor parameters at depths inaccessible to satellites, like oxygen, water velocity, and chlorophyll. Associate Professor Fram’s job is to keep the non-cabled infrastructure functioning, refurbishing and calibrating the sensors, and ensuring the data stream is continuous and available to any interested researchers, free of charge.

The array’s engineer will present two lectures on the capabilities of the array for observing eclipse effects during a three-day eclipse celebration by Oregon State University. His goal is to make sure researchers know about the array, the partnerships that make it function, and the existence of the data. He doesn’t analyze the data himself, but points researchers or collaborative teams to the data so they can make discoveries and write papers to further science. (Eclipse-related data can be found on a special eclipse webpage of the Endurance Array.)

Photo Credit: Kasey R. Jacobs
Photo Credit: Kasey R. Jacobs

Fram’s excitement over the possibility of collecting ocean data on the eclipse began twenty-six years ago when he traveled to the Big Island of Hawaii and was wowed by the 1991 solar eclipse. When he found out the Endurance Array was in the path of totality for the 2017 eclipse he started thinking about what instruments could capture the effects. The instruments today are sensitive enough to observe reactions not previously documented in past solar eclipses.

The instruments measure three different frequencies and can distinguish between different size classes of fish. If fish follow the zooplankton upwards and begin feeding as though it was night the sensors will be able to perceive this behavior. If a whale passes through the array, “we can see that as well.” The array has great potential for use in fisheries research. Instruments normally mounted on the bottoms of ships are now moored in place with cables in the portion managed by the University of Washington. The extra power allows for long-term monitoring not previously attainable.

The next closest thing

While the Endurance Array collects Pacific Ocean data during the eclipse, Dr. Cassandra Runyon, Planetary Geologist with the College of Charleston, will be observing the moon’s shadow as it crosses South Carolina from 80,000 to 100,000 feet. Dr. Runyon is leading a team of six students from the College of Charleston to conduct a high-altitude balloon flight, sending live video and images from near-space to the NASA website. This will be the first time she has remotely sensed a total solar eclipse. Her launch is part of a network of launches being conducted across the country in the path of totality.

Graphic: NASA
Graphic: NASA

A team of students from Oregon State University and Linn-Benton Community College will also be launching a balloon. Their flight will take place 30 miles offshore from onboard OSU’s research vessel Pacific Storm. For NASA, these coordinated balloon flights are also a first. Live coverage has never been done, nor has live footage been recorded across a continental network.

Motivating the College of Charleston’s Dr. Runyon to participate is “In short…curiosity” and the fact that she is not able to witness the eclipse from the International Space Station. “This is the next closest thing for me.”

The tides during the total solar eclipse

Dr. Runyon told The Coastal Society that the eclipse is not expected to affect the geomorphology of the coasts. However, there will be coastal flooding as the eclipse falls on a King Tide day in South Carolina.  King Tides are exceptionally high tides that occur naturally and are predicted beforehand. Twice a month, during new and full moons, the moon, earth, and sun are aligned and the gravitational pull of the sun adds to that of the moon causing the ocean to bulge a bit more than usual. This means that high tides are higher than normal and low tides are lower than normal. For coastal areas in the path of totality this means that these bimonthly Spring Tides will be at their maximum Sunday, August 20th, and Monday, August 21st. The solar eclipse may cause the King Tide intensity to be “slightly higher, but not significant,” according to Dr. Runyon.

In 1932, the Boston Society of Natural History emphasized how the tides affect shorebird behavior during a total solar eclipse. When making observations of abnormal eclipse behaviors in wildlife you first need to know what is their normal behavior. For coastal organisms, this means an observer also should know what their non-eclipse behaviors are during low and high tides.  In 1932, for instance, some gulls were observed to return to the mainland to roost, while others flew to feeding grounds exposed by the receding tide. Was this unusual behavior? During the eclipse the tide was falling and so some gulls decided to feed rather than return to their roosting areas because of the quick onset of darkness.

Inundated by eclipse observers in Oregon and South Carolina

The coasts of South Carolina will be inundated not only with water during the eclipse, but also eclipse chasers. Millions of people will flock to the coasts of Oregon and South Carolina on August 21st, 2017 to witness the first time in the nation’s history a total solar eclipse with a path falling entirely above the continental United States. The coverage has been intense and the enthusiasm is skyrocketing.

Universities are capitalizing on the excitement by organizing educational events and watch parties. The motivation is to enhance the public’s science literacy and showcase the capabilities of university researchers and labs. The College of Charleston will be hosting NASA’s national eclipse broadcasting. These university activities have been in the works for a while. “Members of the Oregon State University NASA Space Grant team, Astronomy Club, and other interested faculty and staff began planning for an OSU eclipse event” well over a year ago, according to Jill Peters, Eclipse Event Manager for the University Relations and Marketing department of Oregon State University. “This is like a dream come true for the scientists, engineers and astronomers on our Corvallis campus and [Hatfield Marine Science Center in] Newport to be directly in the path of a total solar eclipse.”

Photo Credit: Kasey R. Jacobs
Photo Credit: Kasey R. Jacobs

For coastal managers, the eclipse might be bittersweet. Managing the large influx of people is proving to be a challenge for both emergency management, traffic control, and conservation.

Margaret Allen, a member of The Coastal Society, reports that Charleston developed an emergency safety plan and South Carolina emergency officials issued a warning about crazy heavy traffic. “I guess they are worried that people will be driving and not paying attention and wreck. They’re saying locals should do their best to stay off the roads (which makes me prefer to stay at my local pool club). They expect upwards of 1 million out of state folks to come to SC!”

The high tides are one of the big concerns for government officials. “We’re going to have visitors who have no idea what our waters are like or even, as crazy as it sounds, that we have tides,” said Jim Kusz, North Lincoln Fire & Rescue spokesman told the Oregonian/Oregon Live. “We’re probably going to do a sweep the evening before and tell people if you are planning on being on the beach that night you might want to consider being higher up or off the beach completely.”

Oregon State Parks and Recreation warns in an official statement that the new moon on August 21st will bring very high and very low tides. Not sugarcoating the dangers, they continue: “A very low tide exposes a lot of beach, which is deceptively dangerous when the high tide rolls in. This will happen late on the night of Aug. 20 into the early morning of Aug. 21. Don’t camp on the beach because the high tide of more than 9 feet will cover most of the normally dry sand. The best scenario is that you and your sleeping bag will get wet. The other scenarios are far worse.”

Eclipse observer safety is not the only safety concern during total solar eclipses. In 2012, visitors from around the world headed to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park around Cairns, Australia to view the total solar eclipse. Because many islands offshore of Cairns were predicted to be the best locations to view the event there were concerns about disturbance to nesting seabirds. At the time, the Marine Park Authority Director John Day said it was “important visitors were aware of the environment around them when making the most of the rare opportunity”. For the 2017 eclipse, TravelOregon.com asks observers to “keep Oregon safe and beautiful” and provides tips for how to be a good steward while watching the eclipse.

Oregon State Parks and Recreation told The Coastal Society they are warning observers not to climb or dig into cliffs, to comply with posted signs and officials/volunteers, and to protect rocky shore habitats and sensitive wildlife areas. There are sensitive coastal habitat areas (marine reserves, rocky intertidal areas, bird nesting areas) within the path of totality. “It is important to not harass wildlife and be a good steward while enjoying these special places. The general message is to be safe – the Oregon coast is beautiful but can be dangerous if you’re not paying attention. Especially with large crowds, it is important to be aware of your surroundings, be prepared, and be a good steward.”

Jonathan Fram, and his oceanographic array that will observe the eclipse first before the rest of the nation, welcomes the masses. He reminds us that the eclipse is about experiencing the world around us.  “I am looking forward to thousands of people coming to Corvallis and millions of people coming to the whole path of eclipse that are excited about science because of the eclipse. The people coming to Corvallis and our whole weekend of events will be exposed to not just eclipse-related stuff but all the neat science done here. Places all across the country are doing the same types of events are great opportunities to engage people in science.”

For those coastal enthusiasts who want to observe and report on bizarre occurrences of coastal and marine wildlife on August 21, 2017 the California Academy of Sciences is taking a page from the book of the Boston Society of Natural History’s 1932 Eclipse Committee. They are soliciting citizen scientists to record their observations of any animals they see using the academy’s iNaturalist app.

Perhaps scientific and citizen observations recorded during the Great American Solar Eclipse of 2017 will solve the mystery of how solar eclipses affect our coasts and oceans.

 

~Meg Reed contributed to the reporting and editing for this story.

 

Night Dive looking up at water column. Photo Credit: Kasey R. Jacobs
Night dive looking up at water column and bubbles with a dive torch. Photo Credit: Kasey R. Jacobs

Sources 

M. Allen, personal communication, August 10, 2017

Economou, G., E.D. Christou, A. Giannakourou, E. Gerasopoulos, D. Georgopoulos, V. Kotoulas, D. Lyra, N. Tsakalis, M. Tzortziou, P. Vahamidis, E. Papathanassiou, and A. Karamanos. 2008. Eclipse effects on field crops and marine zooplankton: the 29 March 2006 total solar eclipse. Atmos. Chem. Phys.

J. Fram (Oregon State University), personal communication, August 10, 2017

J. Peters (Oregon State University), personal communication, August 9, 2017

M. Robertson (College of Charleston), personal communication, August 9, 2017

C. Runyon (College of Charleston), personal communication, August 9, 2017

Oregon State Parks and Recreation, personal communication (by Meg Reed), August 15, 2017

Wheeler, W.M., C.V. MacCoy, L. Griscom, G. M. Allen, and H.J. Coolidge Jr. 1935. Observations on the Behavior of Animals during the Total Solar Eclipse of August 31, 1932. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences Vol. 70, No. 2 (Mar., 1935), pp. 33-70